Impact of DPP-4 inhibitors on plasma levels of BNP and NT-pro-BNP in type 2 diabetes mellitus

Background: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) decrease glucose levels by regulating incretin peptides in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study aimed to determine the modulatory effect of DPP-4i on brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) in patients with T2DM.
Methods: PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were systematically searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the impact of DPP-4i on BNP or NT-pro-BNP. A fixed- or random-effects model was used for quantitative analysis, according to the heterogeneity. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were performed using standard methods.
Results: Nine trials with 3056 patients with T2DM were included. Meta-analysis revealed that DPP-4i did not significantly modulate the BNP (0.21 pg/mL, 95% CI – 2.36-2.79) or NT-pro-BNP level (- 7.34 pg/mL, 95% CI – 24.27-9.59). DPP-4i demonstrated no stronger effect on modulating BNP (5.17 pg/mL, 95% CI – 7.48-17.82) or NT-pro-BNP (- 9.95 pg/mL, 95% CI – 44.61-24.71) than active comparators. Pooled analysis was robust and stable after sensitivity analysis.
Conclusions: DPP-4i exhibits no significant effect on modulating BNP or NT-pro-BNP and shows no stronger effect than traditional antidiabetic agents in T2DM.
Keywords: BNP; Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors; NT-pro-BNP; Randomized controlled trials; Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Sociodemographic Determinants of Poles’ Attitudes towards the Forest during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Attitudes towards forest ecosystems have been changing together with human needs, which is amplified with society’s increasing need to spend recreation time in the forest. The phenomenon has been particularly visible during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aim of this study was to determine the attitude of Poles to forests during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research was based on (1) a sociodemographic background questionnaire that consisted of questions about the independent variables and (2) the LAS scale-an independently prepared tool for measuring attitudes towards the forest. In the survey, 1025 people participated (673 women). The age of the subjects was between 19 and 68.
The attitude towards the forest was analysed in three dimensions: Benefits, Involvement, and Fears. The Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance by ranks were used for statistical analysis. Women and people with primary education expressed the most fears connected with going to the forest. Men and people living in the countryside and in small towns, as well as respondents who were professionally active and performing work connected with forests were the most involved in exploring the forest and working for its benefit. Concerning the forest, concerned women, people from the highest age group, respondents with university education, and white-collar workers notice the most benefits from recreational activities in the forest.

Relationship between Translational and Rotational Dynamics of Alkyltriethylammonium-Based Ionic Liquids

1H spin-lattice relaxation experiments have been performed for a series of ionic liquids including bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide anion and cations of a varying alkyl chain length: triethylhexylammonium, triethyloctylammonium, decyltriethylammonium, dodecyltriethylammonium, triethyltetradecylammonium, and hexadecyltriethylammonium. The relaxation studies were carried out in abroad frequency range covering three orders of magnitude, from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, versus temperature.
On the basis of a thorough, quantitative analysis of this reach data set, parameters characterizing the relative, cation-cation, translation diffusion (relative diffusion coefficients and translational correlation times), and rotational motion of the cation (rotational correlation times) were determined. Relationships between these quantities and their dependence on the alkyl chain length were discussed in comparison to analogous properties of molecular liquids. It was shown, among other findings, that the ratio between the translational and rotational correlation times is smaller than for molecular liquids and considerably dependent on temperature. Moreover, a comparison of relative and self-diffusion coefficients indicate correlated translational dynamics of the cations.

Incorporation of a FRET Pair into a Riboswitch RNA to Measure Mg 2+ Concentration and RNA Conformational Change in Cell

Riboswitches are natural biosensors that can regulate gene expression by sensing small molecules. Knowledge of the structural dynamics of riboswitches is crucial to elucidate their regulatory mechanism and develop RNA biosensors. In this work, we incorporated the fluorophore, Cy3, and its quencher, TQ3, into a full-length adenine riboswitch RNA and its isolated aptamer domain to monitor the dynamics of the RNAs in vitro and in cell. The adenine riboswitch was sensitive to Mg2+ concentrations and could be used as a biosensor to measure cellular Mg2+ concentrations. Additionally, the TQ3/Cy3-labeled adenine riboswitch yielded a Mg2+ concentration that was similar to that measured using a commercial assay kit.
Furthermore, the fluorescence response to the adenine of the TQ3/Cy3-labeled riboswitch RNA was applied to determine the proportions of multiple RNA conformational changes in cells. The strategy developed in this work can be used to probe the dynamics of other RNAs in cells and may facilitate the developments of RNA biosensors, drugs and engineering.

Circadian Control of REDOX Reactions in the Macrophage Inflammatory Response

Significance: Macrophages are immune sentinels located throughout the body that function in both the amplification and resolution of the inflammatory response. The circadian clock has emerged as a central regulator of macrophage inflammation. Reduction-oxidation (REDOX) reactions are central to both circadian clock and macrophage function. Recent Advances: Circadian regulation of metabolism controls the macrophage inflammatory response, whereby disruption of the clock causes dysfunctional inflammation. Altering metabolism and reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (RONS) production rescues the inflammatory phenotype of clock-disrupted macrophages.
Critical issues: The circadian clock possesses many layers of regulation. Understanding how REDOX reactions coordinate clock function is critical to uncover the full extent of circadian regulation of macrophage inflammation. We provide insights into how circadian regulation of REDOX affects macrophage pattern recognition receptor signaling, immunometabolism, phagocytosis, and inflammasome activation.
Future directions: Many diseases associated with aberrant macrophage derived inflammation exhibit time of day rhythms in disease symptoms and severity and are sensitive to circadian disruption. Macrophage function is highly dependent on REDOX reactions that signal through RONS. Future studies are needed to evaluate the extent of circadian control of macrophage inflammation, specifically in the context of REDOX signaling.

The health consequences of child marriage: a systematic review of the evidence

Background: Child marriage, defined as marriage before 18 years of age, is a violation of human rights and a marker of gender inequality. Growing attention to this issue on the global development agenda also reflects concerns that it may negatively impact health. We conducted a systematic review to synthesize existing research on the consequences of child marriage on health and to assess the risk of bias in this body of literature.
Methods and findings: We searched databases focused on biomedicine and global health for studies that estimated the effect of marrying before the age of 18 on any physical or mental health outcome or health behaviour. We identified 58 eligible articles, nearly all of which relied on cross-sectional data sources from sub-Saharan Africa or South Asia. The most studied health outcomes were indicators of fertility and fertility control, maternal health care, and intimate partner violence. All studies were at serious to critical risk of bias. Research consistently found that women who marry before the age of 18 begin having children at earlier ages and give birth to a larger number of children when compared to those who marry at 18 or later, but whether these outcomes were desired was not considered.
Across studies, women who married as children were also consistently less likely to give birth in health care facilities or with assistance from skilled providers. Studies also uniformly concluded that child marriage increases the likelihood of experiencing physical violence from an intimate partner. However, research in many other domains, including use of contraception, unwanted pregnancy, and sexual violence came to divergent conclusions and challenge some common narratives regarding child marriage.

Formulated DMEM

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Optimized DMEM

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Specialized DMEM

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C0003-03 | RT 500 mL Bottle: 104.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM001-300 | 6x500ml: 158.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM001-310 | 10x500ml: 201.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM001-320 | 20x500ml: 313.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM001-350 | 50x500ml: 571.00 EUR

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DMEM, High Glucose

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CM002-300 | 6x500ml: 158.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

from GenDepot
CM002-310 | 10x500ml: 201.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

from GenDepot
CM002-320 | 20x500ml: 313.00 EUR

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DMEM, High Glucose

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DMEM, High Glucose

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CM003-310 | 10x500ml: 205.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

from GenDepot
CM003-320 | 20x500ml: 317.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM003-350 | 50x500ml: 585.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM004-050 | 500ml: 74.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM004-300 | 6x500ml: 165.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM004-310 | 10x500ml: 205.00 EUR

DMEM, High Glucose

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CM004-320 | 20x500ml: 317.00 EUR
Conclusions: There are many reasons to be concerned about child marriage. However, evidence that child marriage causes the health outcomes described in this review is severely limited. There is more heterogeneity in the results of these studies than is often recognized. For these reasons, greater caution is warranted when discussing the potential impact of child marriage on health. We provide suggestions for avoiding common biases and improving the strength of the evidence on this subject.
Trial registration: The protocol of this systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020182652) in May 2020.
Keywords: Child marriage; Social determinants of health; Systematic review.

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