TYPES OF IMMUNITY

Immunoassays are a combination of biochemical techniques used to identify, and in other cases quantifiable, a certain molecular molecule present in a biological sample. The characteristic foundation which includes the types of immunity is that all of them are based on a specific anti-antigen reaction .

In this case, the 9 types of immunologicals that reveal more frequently in the laboratories of investigation should be reviewed.

TYPES OF IMMUNITY

1.- WESTERN BLOT (WB)

A Western Blot technician, the proteins presented in a determined biological sample are separated in the function of their median electrophoresis, to be transferred to a membrane and tissues with a specific anticancer.

With this technique, in order to detect the protein of interest, it is possible to determine its own, confirming whether there are post-translational modifications or comparing their concentration in different samples, between others.

2.- IMMUNOPRECIPITATION (IP)

Immunoprecipitation is used to determine the protein of the components present in a sample, taking into account the precipitation of anti-antigen compounds.

In addition to the detection and quantification of proteins, their applications are very different, including the determination of the molecular weight of a given antigen, the study of interactions between proteins or the monitoring of post-translational modifications.

3.- RADIOINMUNOENSAYO (RIA)

This immunoassay uses radioactive isotopes to mark the anti-antigen complex. It is important to follow the reading of radiation to detect these complexes and to confirm and / or quantify the presence of protein of interest in the sample.

One of the sales of Radioinmunoensayo is a very sensitive technique , which makes it possible to detect proteins that are found in other concentrations in the sample. Without embargo, it is also due to a practical importer, and it is a potential pilgrim that works with radioactive material.

4.- ELISA (ENZYME ENZYMES)

Of the different types of immunoassays, ELISA is one of the most popular and of the most frequently used research laboratories in their implementation, versatility and other sensitivities and specificities.

It is essential in the use of enzymes that allow the detection of anti-antigen unions (and therefore the presence of a certain antigen in the sample) to catalyze a colorimetric reaction to add the corresponding correspondence.

5.- CLIA (CHEMICAL IMMUNOSUPPRESSANTS)

The CLIA chemimuminescence tests, based on ELISA, differ in the case of this anti-antigen union measure, in addition to the generation of fluorescence generating a chemical reaction.

The CLIA examines the unconventional need for specific equipment to read the fluorescence, but in contrast to the sale of the significantly more sensible ELISAs.

6.- IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE (IF)

In immunofluorescence tests, the detection of the antigen of interest within the Union and of the specific anti-dumping shall be indicated by the use of fluorophores.

7.- IMMUNOHISTOCHEMISTRY (IHC)

These include a combination of immunological, biochemical and histological techniques for the detection of an antigen present in a section measuring the use of specific anti-dumping measures. Admittedly, it is possible to visualize the distribution and location of this antigen inside the studio.

8.- IMMUNOCYTOCHEMISTRY (ICC)

It is a technique with a foundation similar to the immunological chemistry, so that in this case, the immunocitochemistry allows the detection of an antigen inside a cell.

Thus, the IHC, as the ICC, is subject to less than any sensitivities to an ELISA or a Western blot, which may allow the antigen to be recorded in the context of a cell or one intact, not necessarily the need for an alarm.

9.- CITOMETRÍA DE FLUJO (FC)

Inside the different types of immunizations, it is one of the most complete. The flow cytometry is a method of dispersing and reflecting the light from the laser to analyze and analyze cells in suspension in the functioning of their physical-chemical characteristics.

 

 

TOP antibodies – AMACR (P504S) (clone 13H4) – rabbit monoclonal antibody

AMACR (P504S) (clone 13H4) – rabbit monoclonal antibody

Clone 13H4 – a classic that will not get bored         

 

AMACR (P504S) is an essential enzyme in the β-oxidation of branched chain fatty acids. High expression of the AMACR protein (P504S) has been demonstrated in prostate adenocarcinoma. Positivity is lacking in normal tissue, prostate tissue or benign lesions. AMACR (P504S) expression has also been demonstrated in two premalignant prostate lesions: high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia. The use of AMACR (P504S) as a positive marker along with basal cell staining (CK HMW or P63) as a negative marker may help to confirm the diagnosis of small-scale prostate cancer in a needle biopsy.

Positive control: kidney

Cellular localization: cytoplasmic

 

Human prostate cancer stained with anti-AMACR antibody using formalin-fixed peroxidase conjugate and DAB chromogen embedded in paraffin. Note the cytoplasmic and luminal peripheral staining of cancerous glands.